Re: [edk2-devel] CPU hotplug using SMM with QEMU+OVMF

Laszlo Ersek

On 08/22/19 20:51, Paolo Bonzini wrote:
On 22/08/19 20:29, Laszlo Ersek wrote:
On 08/22/19 08:18, Paolo Bonzini wrote:
On 21/08/19 22:17, Kinney, Michael D wrote:
DMA protection of memory ranges is a chipset feature. For the current
QEMU implementation, what ranges of memory are guaranteed to be
protected from DMA? Is it only A/B seg and TSEG?
This thread (esp. Jiewen's and Mike's messages) are the first time that
I've heard about the *existence* of such RAM ranges / the chipset
feature. :)

Out of interest (independently of virtualization), how is a general
purpose OS informed by the firmware, "never try to set up DMA to this
RAM area"? Is this communicated through ACPI _CRS perhaps?

... Ah, almost: ACPI 6.2 specifies _DMA, in "6.2.4 _DMA (Direct Memory
Access)". It writes,

For example, if a platform implements a PCI bus that cannot access
all of physical memory, it has a _DMA object under that PCI bus that
describes the ranges of physical memory that can be accessed by
devices on that bus.

Sorry about the digression, and also about being late to this thread,
continually -- I'm primarily following and learning.
It's much simpler: these ranges are not in e820, for example

kernel: BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000059000-0x000000000008bfff] usable
kernel: BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000000008c000-0x00000000000fffff] reserved
(1) Sorry, my _DMA quote was a detour from QEMU -- I wondered how a
physical machine with actual RAM at 0x30000, and also chipset level
protection against DMA to/from that RAM range, would expose the fact to
the OS (so that the OS not innocently try to set up DMA there).

(2) In case of QEMU+OVMF, "e820" is not defined at the firmware level.

- QEMU exports an "e820 map" (and OVMF does utilize that),
- and Linux parses the UEFI memmap into an "e820 map" (so that dependent
logic only need to deal with e820),

in edk2 the concepts are "GCD memory space map" and "UEFI memmap".

So what OVMF does is, it reserves the TSEG area in the UEFI memmap:

(This was later de-constified for the extended TSEG size, in commit
23bfb5c0aab6, "OvmfPkg/PlatformPei: prepare for PcdQ35TsegMbytes
becoming dynamic", 2017-07-05).

This is just to say that with OVMF, TSEG is not absent from the UEFI
memmap, it is reserved instead. (Apologies if I misunderstood and you
didn't actually claim otherwise.)

The ranges are not special-cased in any way by QEMU. Simply, AB-segs
and TSEG RAM are not part of the address space except when in SMM.
(or when TSEG is not locked, and open; but:) yes, this matches my

Therefore, DMA to those ranges ends up respectively to low VGA RAM[1]
and to the bit bucket. When AB-segs are open, for example, DMA to that
area becomes possible.
Which seems to imply that, if we alias 0x30000 to the AB-segs, and rely
on the AB-segs for CPU hotplug, OVMF should close and lock down the
AB-segs at first boot. Correct? (Because OVMF doesn't do anything about
AB at the moment.)



[1] old timers may remember DEF SEG=&HB800: BLOAD "foo.img",0. It still
works with some disk device models.

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