Re: [PATCH v14 00/46] SEV-ES guest support

Lendacky, Thomas

On 8/11/20 9:49 AM, Laszlo Ersek wrote:
On 08/11/20 03:12, Gao, Liming wrote:
I run ECC plugin (; in my local machine. It reports below issues. Can you help update the patches to fix them?
I use the standalone EccCheck from;

EFI coding style error
*Error code: 8005
*Variable name does not follow the rules: 1. First character should be upper case 2. Must contain lower case characters 3. No white space characters 4. Global variable name must start with a 'g'
*file: D:\AllPkg\edk2\OvmfPkg\Sec\SecMain.c
*Line number: 867
*The variable name [*Ds] does not follow the rules
I don't understand this report; with this series applied, line 867 is
the following:

867 UINT8 *Src, *Dst;

coming from patch v14 37/46, "OvmfPkg/Sec: Add #VC exception handling
for Sec phase".

Perhaps ECC is confused because we have two declarations on the same
line; I'm not sure.

In general I too like to keep declarations on separate lines, but there
are exceptions. Declaring *Src and *Dst on the same line is pretty
reasonable, and trivial.

I think it's time for us to put the ECC exception list to use, under

Tom, please try to reproduce this error locally, and then modify
"OvmfPkg/", adding an exception under the EccCheck block.

... Oh wait, we haven't even merged Shenglei's series for that! The
latest posting is:

[edk2-devel] [PATCH v9 00/16]
Add a plugin to check Ecc issues for edk2 on open ci

and it's still under review.

Indeed, Liming says above that he used the "standalone EccCheck".

OK. In this case, I state that some of these ECC reports for OvmfPkg
should be waived.

I'm in general of the opinion that ECC is too strict, and package
maintainers should have power to selectively enforce or override ECC
reports. That's why I agreed to the ECC CI plugin in the first place --
becase we have exception lists that are controllable under specific
package directories (in the *.ci.yaml files).

In the present case, running the standalone ECC check has worse
granularity than the upcoming ECC CI plugin. So, because I can't ask Tom
to add a new exception to "OvmfPkg/" right now (before we
merge this series), I'm replacing that with a waiver in this email.

Of course, if maintainers of other packages want the ECC reports issued
under their packages addressed, that's their call. I can only waive ECC
reports under OvmfPkg.

EFI coding style error
*Error code: 9003
*The first line of text in a comment block should be a brief description of the element being documented and the brief description must end with a period.
*file: D:\AllPkg\edk2\OvmfPkg\Library\BaseMemEncryptSevLib\MemEncryptSevLibInternal.c
*Line number: 72
*Comment description should end with period '.'
Disagree; sometimes people use well-formed full English sentences,
sometimes only thought fragments.

EFI coding style error
*Error code: 3002
*Non-Boolean comparisons should use a compare operator (==, !=, >, < >=, <=)
*file: D:\AllPkg\edk2\OvmfPkg\Library\VmgExitLib\VmgExitVcHandler.c
*Line number: 1280
*Predicate Expression: OpCount
On the other hand, this report *is* worth fixing.

1280 while (OpCount) {

I've myself asked Tom for observing this rule at several locations, but
we both missed the one reported above. It comes from patch #14
("OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Support string IO for IOIO_PROT NAE events").

EFI coding style error
*Error code: 5007
*There should be no initialization of a variable as part of its declaration
*file: D:\AllPkg\edk2\OvmfPkg\Library\VmgExitLib\VmgExitVcHandler.c
*Line number: 845
*Variable Name: Data
Agree this should be fixed; I should have noticed it during review. My

845 UINT8 *Data = (UINT8 *) Ghcb->SharedBuffer;

Comes from patch #17 ("OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for NPF NAE
events (MMIO)").

EFI coding style error
*Error code: 5007
*There should be no initialization of a variable as part of its declaration
*file: D:\AllPkg\edk2\OvmfPkg\Library\VmgExitLib\VmgExitVcHandler.c
*Line number: 849
*Variable Name: Data
Yes, this should be fixed too:

849 UINT16 *Data = (UINT16 *) Ghcb->SharedBuffer;

Again, I should have noticed it; I'm sorry.

It comes from patch #17 ("OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for NPF NAE
events (MMIO)") again.

Tom: given that a new iteration seems justified after all (I'm really
sorry about that -- with Shenglei's series hopefully soon merged, such
issues will be reported earlier!), if you'd like, you could address the
two ECC reports too that I said were too strict and should be ignored.
(That means breaking the "*Dst" declaration to a new line, and adding a
period to the comment.) Up to you; I certainly don't insist on those.
No worries, easy enough to do if I'm already updating the others.

I would like to be able to run this tool on my system, though, to see if
anything else gets flagged after fixing the above mentioned issues. But
the tool fails for me as I described in another post. The reason I say
that is, for example, the issue about the comment description ending with
a period was actually in multiple spots of the commit, even though the
tool only flagged one. I'd hate to think I've fixed everything only to
have the tool find more issues after I've submitted another series, all
because I couldn't run the tool.



-----Original Message-----
From: Laszlo Ersek <lersek@...>
Sent: 2020年8月11日 3:36
To:; thomas.lendacky@...
Cc: Brijesh Singh <brijesh.singh@...>; Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@...>; Dong, Eric <eric.dong@...>; Justen, Jordan L <jordan.l.justen@...>; Gao, Liming <liming.gao@...>; Kinney, Michael D <michael.d.kinney@...>; Ni, Ray <>; Andrew Fish <afish@...>; Anthony Perard <anthony.perard@...>; You, Benjamin <>; Bi, Dandan <>; Dong, Guo <guo.dong@...>; Wu, Hao A <hao.a.wu@...>; Wang, Jian J <>; Julien Grall <julien@...>; Leif Lindholm <leif@...>; Ma, Maurice <>
Subject: Re: [edk2-devel] [PATCH v14 00/46] SEV-ES guest support

On 08/07/20 21:38, Lendacky, Thomas wrote:
From: Tom Lendacky <thomas.lendacky@...>

This patch series provides support for running EDK2/OVMF under SEV-ES.

Secure Encrypted Virtualization - Encrypted State (SEV-ES) expands on
the SEV support to protect the guest register state from the
hypervisor. See
"AMD64 Architecture Programmer's Manual Volume 2: System Programming",
section "15.35 Encrypted State (SEV-ES)" [1].

In order to allow a hypervisor to perform functions on behalf of a
guest, there is architectural support for notifying a guest's
operating system when certain types of VMEXITs are about to occur.
This allows the guest to selectively share information with the
hypervisor to satisfy the requested function. The notification is
performed using a new exception, the VMM Communication exception
(#VC). The information is shared through the Guest-Hypervisor Communication Block (GHCB) using the VMGEXIT instruction.
The GHCB format and the protocol for using it is documented in "SEV-ES
Guest-Hypervisor Communication Block Standardization" [2].

The main areas of the EDK2 code that are updated to support SEV-ES are
around the exception handling support and the AP boot support.

Exception support is required starting in Sec, continuing through Pei
and into Dxe in order to handle #VC exceptions that are generated.
Each AP requires it's own GHCB page as well as a page to hold values
specific to that AP.

AP booting poses some interesting challenges. The INIT-SIPI-SIPI
sequence is typically used to boot the APs. However, the hypervisor is
not allowed to update the guest registers. The GHCB document [2] talks
about how SMP booting under SEV-ES is performed.

Since the GHCB page must be a shared (unencrypted) page, the processor
must be running in long mode in order for the guest and hypervisor to
communicate with each other. As a result, SEV-ES is only supported
under the X64 architecture.

This series adds a new library requirement for the VmgExitLib library
against the UefiCpuPkg CpuExceptionHandlerLib library and the
UefiCpuPkg MpInitLib library. The edk2-platforms repo requires
updates/patches to add the new library requirement. To accomodate
that, this series could be split between:

patch number 10:
UefiPayloadPkg: Prepare UefiPayloadPkg to use the VmgExitLib library

and patch number 11:
UefiCpuPkg/CpuExceptionHandler: Add base support for the #VC

The updates to edk2-platforms can be applied at the split.



These patches are based on commit:
9565ab67c209 ("ShellPkg: smbiosview - Change some type 17 field values

A version of the tree can be found at:;;sdata=6b9EqEVAy1VK38oMSuAPJhOourJpPXUnRIgMcSWRMQc%3D&amp;reserved=0

Cc: Andrew Fish <afish@...>
Cc: Anthony Perard <anthony.perard@...>
Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@...>
Cc: Benjamin You <>
Cc: Dandan Bi <>
Cc: Eric Dong <eric.dong@...>
Cc: Guo Dong <guo.dong@...>
Cc: Hao A Wu <hao.a.wu@...>
Cc: Jian J Wang <>
Cc: Jordan Justen <jordan.l.justen@...>
Cc: Julien Grall <julien@...>
Cc: Laszlo Ersek <lersek@...>
Cc: Leif Lindholm <leif@...>
Cc: Liming Gao <liming.gao@...>
Cc: Maurice Ma <>
Cc: Michael D Kinney <michael.d.kinney@...>
Cc: Ray Ni <>

Changes since v13:
- Fixup the AsmRelocateApLoop() call site so IA32 successfully boots APs.
Do this by appending the three new parameters without altering the
original parameter passing order.
- Minor updates to description text and help text to expand the GHCB

Changes since v12:
- Change IA32 VMGEXIT .nasm file to issue an int 3. Depending on the
version of NASM, the "BITS 64" trick to get NASM to recognize the
VMMCALL instruction (VMGEXIT is a REP VMMCALL) caused an error. Since
SEV-ES is X64 only, VMGEXIT should never be called in IA32.

Changes since v11:
- Make the XGETBV and VMGEXIT .nasm files buildable for all environments
and remove the updates that add these instructions to GccInline.c

Changes since v10:
- Fix conflicts around GccInline.c file after moving to latest commit
- Fix conflicts with OVMF PCD values after moving to latest commit

Changes since v9:
- Fixed bit field declarations in the GHCB structure to use UINT32
and not UINT64.
- Fixed a warning produced by VS2019 in the instruction parsing code
by expliciting casting a bit shift to an INT64.
- Sorted section entries in the OVMF VmgExitLib INF file.
- Moved the new Maintainers.txt entry so entries remain sorted.
- Documentation style fixes for return values.
- Miscellaneous code style fixes.

Changes since v8:
- Move IOIO exit info definitions into Ghcb.h file
- Add a macro for calculating IO instruction bytes (IOIO_DATA_BYTES)
- Exception handler support for debug registers
- Moved the DRx register saving changes into the UefiCpuPkg patch for
base #VC support in CpuExceptionHandlerLib.
- OvmfPkg VmgExitLib
- Remove the .uni file
- Update .inf file:
- New file location for VmgExitVcHandler.c
- Add additional Packages and LibraryClasses
- Introduce a header file to hold the #VC instruction parsing related
- Include additional #defines for instruction decoding to replace
hard coded values for things like instruction prefixes and escapes.
- Replace hardcoded CPUID values with values from existing header files
and use existing CR4 definition for accessing CR4 data.
- Change the type used for obtaining data addresses in the instruction
- Switch from INTN to UINT64 and use compiler conversions and casting
to perform the correct address calculation
- ResetVector code:
- Revert some inadvertant changes introduced in v7 for reserving the
SEV-ES work area memory and for checking the status of SEV-ES.
- AP Booting
- Provide support for non-broadcast INIT-SIPI-SIPI AP boot (minimize
code duplication by creating a function to set the AP jump table
vector address).
- Fix file/directory entry in maintainer changes.
- Various coding style fixes
- Commenting, if statements, etc.
- Various documentation style fixes

Changes since v7:
- Reserve the SEV-ES workarea when S3 is enabled
- Fix warnings issued by the Visual Studio compiler
- Create a NULL VmgExitLib instance that is used for VMGEXIT
related operations as well as #VC handling. Then create the full
VmgExitLib support only in OvmfPkg - where it will be used. This
removes a bunch of implementation code from platforms that will
not be using the functionality.
- Remove single use interfaces from the VmgExitLib (VmgMmioWrite
and VmgSetApJumpTable)

Changes since v6:
- Add function comments to all functions, including local functions
- Add function parameter direction to all functions (in/out)
- Add support for MMIO MOVZX/MOVSX instructions
- Ensure the per-CPU variable page remains encrypted
- Coding-style fixes as identified by Ecc

Changes since v5:
- Remove extraneous VmgExitLib usage
- Miscellaneous changes to address feedback (coding style, etc.)

Changes since v4:
- Move the SEV-ES protocol negotiation out of the SEC exception handler
and into the SecMain.c file. As a result:
- Move the SecGhcb related PCDs out of UefiCpuPkg and into OvmfPkg
- Combine SecAMDSevVcHandler.c and PeiDxeAMDSevVcHandler.c into a
single AMDSevVcHandler.c
- Consolidate VmgExitLib usage into common LibraryClasses sections
- Add documentation comments to the VmgExitLib functions

Changes since v3:
- Remove the need for the MP library finalization routine. The AP
jump table address will be held by the hypervisor rather than
communicated via the GHCB MSR. This removes some fragility around
the UEFI to OS transition.
- Rename the SEV-ES RIP reset area to SEV-ES workarea and use it to
communicate the SEV-ES status, so that SEC CPU exception handling is
only established for an SEV-ES guest.
- Fix SMM build breakageAdd around QemuFlashPtrWrite().
- Fix SMM build breakage by adding VC exception support the SMM CPU
exception handling.
- Add memory fencing around the invocation of AsmVmgExit().
- Clarify comments around the SEV-ES AP reset RIP values and usage.
- Move some PCD definitions from MdeModulePkg to UefiCpuPkg.
- Remove the 16-bit code selector definition from MdeModulePkg

Changes since v2:
- Added a way to locate the SEV-ES fixed AP RIP address for starting
AP's to avoid updating the actual flash image (build time location
that is identified with a GUID value).
- Create a VmgExit library to replace static inline functions.
- Move some PCDs to the appropriate packages
- Add support for writing to QEMU flash under SEV-ES
- Add additional MMIO opcode support
- Cleaned up the GHCB MSR CPUID protocol support

Changes since v1:
- Patches reworked to be more specific to the component/area being updated
and order of definition/usage
- Created a library for VMGEXIT-related functions to replace use of inline
- Allocation method for GDT changed from AllocatePool to AllocatePages
- Early caching only enabled for SEV-ES guests
- Ensure AP loop mode set to halt loop mode for SEV-ES guests
- Reserved SEC GHCB-related memory areas when S3 is enabled

Tom Lendacky (46):
MdeModulePkg: Create PCDs to be used in support of SEV-ES
UefiCpuPkg: Create PCD to be used in support of SEV-ES
MdePkg: Add the MSR definition for the GHCB register
MdePkg: Add a structure definition for the GHCB
MdeModulePkg/DxeIplPeim: Support GHCB pages when creating page tables
MdePkg/BaseLib: Add support for the XGETBV instruction
MdePkg/BaseLib: Add support for the VMGEXIT instruction
UefiCpuPkg: Implement library support for VMGEXIT
OvmfPkg: Prepare OvmfPkg to use the VmgExitLib library
UefiPayloadPkg: Prepare UefiPayloadPkg to use the VmgExitLib library
UefiCpuPkg/CpuExceptionHandler: Add base support for the #VC exception
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Implement library support for VmgExitLib in OVMF
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for IOIO_PROT NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Support string IO for IOIO_PROT NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for CPUID NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for MSR_PROT NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for NPF NAE events (MMIO)
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for WBINVD NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for RDTSC NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for RDPMC NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for INVD NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for VMMCALL NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for RDTSCP NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for MONITOR/MONITORX NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for MWAIT/MWAITX NAE events
OvmfPkg/VmgExitLib: Add support for DR7 Read/Write NAE events
OvmfPkg/MemEncryptSevLib: Add an SEV-ES guest indicator function
OvmfPkg: Add support to perform SEV-ES initialization
OvmfPkg: Create a GHCB page for use during Sec phase
OvmfPkg/PlatformPei: Reserve GHCB-related areas if S3 is supported
OvmfPkg: Create GHCB pages for use during Pei and Dxe phase
OvmfPkg/PlatformPei: Move early GDT into ram when SEV-ES is enabled
UefiCpuPkg: Create an SEV-ES workarea PCD
OvmfPkg: Reserve a page in memory for the SEV-ES usage
OvmfPkg/PlatformPei: Reserve SEV-ES work area if S3 is supported
OvmfPkg/ResetVector: Add support for a 32-bit SEV check
OvmfPkg/Sec: Add #VC exception handling for Sec phase
OvmfPkg/Sec: Enable cache early to speed up booting
OvmfPkg/QemuFlashFvbServicesRuntimeDxe: Bypass flash detection with
UefiCpuPkg: Add a 16-bit protected mode code segment descriptor
UefiCpuPkg/MpInitLib: Add CPU MP data flag to indicate if SEV-ES is
UefiCpuPkg: Allow AP booting under SEV-ES
OvmfPkg: Use the SEV-ES work area for the SEV-ES AP reset vector
OvmfPkg: Move the GHCB allocations into reserved memory
UefiCpuPkg/MpInitLib: Prepare SEV-ES guest APs for OS use
Maintainers.txt: Add reviewers for the OvmfPkg SEV-related files

MdeModulePkg/MdeModulePkg.dec | 9 +
OvmfPkg/OvmfPkg.dec | 9 +
UefiCpuPkg/UefiCpuPkg.dec | 17 +
OvmfPkg/OvmfPkgIa32.dsc | 6 +
OvmfPkg/OvmfPkgIa32X64.dsc | 6 +
OvmfPkg/OvmfPkgX64.dsc | 6 +
OvmfPkg/OvmfXen.dsc | 1 +
UefiCpuPkg/UefiCpuPkg.dsc | 2 +
UefiPayloadPkg/UefiPayloadPkgIa32.dsc | 2 +
UefiPayloadPkg/UefiPayloadPkgIa32X64.dsc | 2 +
OvmfPkg/OvmfPkgX64.fdf | 9 +
MdeModulePkg/Core/DxeIplPeim/DxeIpl.inf | 2 +
MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/BaseLib.inf | 4 +
OvmfPkg/Library/VmgExitLib/VmgExitLib.inf | 36 +
OvmfPkg/PlatformPei/PlatformPei.inf | 9 +
.../FvbServicesRuntimeDxe.inf | 2 +
OvmfPkg/ResetVector/ResetVector.inf | 8 +
OvmfPkg/Sec/SecMain.inf | 4 +
.../DxeCpuExceptionHandlerLib.inf | 1 +
.../PeiCpuExceptionHandlerLib.inf | 1 +
.../SecPeiCpuExceptionHandlerLib.inf | 1 +
.../SmmCpuExceptionHandlerLib.inf | 1 +
.../Xcode5SecPeiCpuExceptionHandlerLib.inf | 1 +
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/DxeMpInitLib.inf | 4 +
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/PeiMpInitLib.inf | 4 +
.../Library/VmgExitLibNull/VmgExitLibNull.inf | 27 +
.../Core/DxeIplPeim/X64/VirtualMemory.h | 12 +-
MdePkg/Include/Library/BaseLib.h | 31 +
MdePkg/Include/Register/Amd/Fam17Msr.h | 46 +
MdePkg/Include/Register/Amd/Ghcb.h | 166 ++
.../IndustryStandard/InstructionParsing.h | 83 +
OvmfPkg/Include/Library/MemEncryptSevLib.h | 12 +
.../QemuFlash.h | 13 +
UefiCpuPkg/CpuDxe/CpuGdt.h | 4 +-
UefiCpuPkg/Include/Library/VmgExitLib.h | 103 +
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/MpLib.h | 68 +-
.../Core/DxeIplPeim/Ia32/DxeLoadFunc.c | 4 +-
.../Core/DxeIplPeim/X64/DxeLoadFunc.c | 11 +-
.../Core/DxeIplPeim/X64/VirtualMemory.c | 57 +-
.../MemEncryptSevLibInternal.c | 75 +-
OvmfPkg/Library/VmgExitLib/VmgExitLib.c | 159 ++
OvmfPkg/Library/VmgExitLib/VmgExitVcHandler.c | 1716 +++++++++++++++++
OvmfPkg/PlatformPei/AmdSev.c | 89 +
OvmfPkg/PlatformPei/MemDetect.c | 43 +
.../QemuFlash.c | 23 +-
.../QemuFlashDxe.c | 40 +
.../QemuFlashSmm.c | 16 +
OvmfPkg/Sec/SecMain.c | 188 +-
UefiCpuPkg/CpuDxe/CpuGdt.c | 8 +-
.../CpuExceptionCommon.c | 10 +-
.../PeiDxeSmmCpuException.c | 20 +-
.../SecPeiCpuException.c | 19 +
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/DxeMpLib.c | 120 +-
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/MpLib.c | 337 +++-
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/PeiMpLib.c | 19 +
.../Library/VmgExitLibNull/VmgExitLibNull.c | 121 ++
UefiCpuPkg/PiSmmCpuDxeSmm/X64/SmmFuncsArch.c | 2 +-
Maintainers.txt | 10 +
MdeModulePkg/MdeModulePkg.uni | 8 +
MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/Ia32/VmgExit.nasm | 38 +
MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/Ia32/XGetBv.nasm | 31 +
MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/X64/VmgExit.nasm | 32 +
MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/X64/XGetBv.nasm | 34 +
OvmfPkg/ResetVector/Ia16/ResetVectorVtf0.asm | 100 +
OvmfPkg/ResetVector/Ia32/PageTables64.asm | 351 +++-
OvmfPkg/ResetVector/ResetVector.nasmb | 20 +
.../X64/ExceptionHandlerAsm.nasm | 17 +
.../X64/Xcode5ExceptionHandlerAsm.nasm | 17 +
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/Ia32/ | 2 +-
.../Library/MpInitLib/Ia32/MpFuncs.nasm | 20 +-
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/X64/ | 4 +-
UefiCpuPkg/Library/MpInitLib/X64/MpFuncs.nasm | 369 +++-
.../Library/VmgExitLibNull/VmgExitLibNull.uni | 15 +
.../ResetVector/Vtf0/Ia16/Real16ToFlat32.asm | 9 +
UefiCpuPkg/UefiCpuPkg.uni | 11 +
75 files changed, 4777 insertions(+), 100 deletions(-) create mode
100644 OvmfPkg/Library/VmgExitLib/VmgExitLib.inf
create mode 100644
create mode 100644 MdePkg/Include/Register/Amd/Ghcb.h
create mode 100644
create mode 100644 UefiCpuPkg/Include/Library/VmgExitLib.h
create mode 100644 OvmfPkg/Library/VmgExitLib/VmgExitLib.c
create mode 100644 OvmfPkg/Library/VmgExitLib/VmgExitVcHandler.c
create mode 100644 UefiCpuPkg/Library/VmgExitLibNull/VmgExitLibNull.c
create mode 100644 MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/Ia32/VmgExit.nasm
create mode 100644 MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/Ia32/XGetBv.nasm
create mode 100644 MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/X64/VmgExit.nasm
create mode 100644 MdePkg/Library/BaseLib/X64/XGetBv.nasm
create mode 100644 OvmfPkg/ResetVector/Ia16/ResetVectorVtf0.asm
create mode 100644
For all patches except #10 ("UefiPayloadPkg: Prepare UefiPayloadPkg to use the VmgExitLib library") and #46 ("Maintainers.txt: Add reviewers for the OvmfPkg SEV-related files"):

Regression-tested-by: Laszlo Ersek <lersek@...>


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